The global economic and financial crisis affected countries all over the world. Although, poorer economies were on average less affected by the crisis, some developing countries still experienced considerable output losses. This paper shows that households living in developing countries were in a bad position to cope with the crisis. Worsening labour market conditions and decreased remittances reduced the welfare of many households, and the effects were particularly harsh for poor and vulnerable households. The absence of functioning social protection schemes in many developing countries made the situation even worse. This paper argues that promoting social cash transfers in developing countries could help protect their populations from the adverse consequences of economic shocks.
Many of the psychological effects of ecstasy are due to its actions within the limbic system (the amygdala, in red, and hippocampus, in blue, especially). The ability of ecstasy to produce mild stimulation is due to its actions in another part of the limbic system -- the basal ganglia (in purple). It is here where ecstasy's effects on the dopamine system may be important. The heightened perceptions involve the actions of ecstasy in the neocotex (in yellow). ecstasy can also reduce the appetite, because it acts in the hypothalamus (in green), which controls feeding behavior.
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