A study by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found that in 2011, sedatives and hypnotics were a leading source for adverse drug events seen in the hospital setting. Approximately % of all ADEs present on admission and % of ADEs that originated during a hospital stay were caused by a sedative or hypnotic drug.  A second study by AHRQ found that in 2011, the most common specifically identified causes of adverse drug events that originated during hospital stays in the . were steroids, antibiotics, opiates/narcotics, and anticoagulants. Patients treated in urban teaching hospitals had higher rates of ADEs involving antibiotics and opiates/narcotics compared to those treated in urban nonteaching hospitals. Those treated in private, nonprofit hospitals had higher rates of most ADE causes compared to patients treated in public or private, for-profit hospitals. 
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of BOTOX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These reactions include: abdominal pain; alopecia , including madarosis; anorexia ; brachial plexopathy; denervation /muscle atrophy ; diarrhea; hyperhidrosis; hypoacusis; hypoaesthesia; malaise ; paresthesia ; peripheral neuropathy ; radiculopathy ; erythema multiforme , dermatitis psoriasiform, and psoriasiform eruption; strabismus; tinnitus ; and visual disturbances.
The list of adverse effects discussed in the previous sections is not exhaustive and more detailed information can be found in recent reviews 2,6,10 and in the data sheets for each drug. The goal of antiepileptic therapy is to achieve complete seizure control in the absence of adverse effects impacting negatively on quality of life. There are currently more than 25 drugs in the market for the treatment of epilepsy, many of which have similar efficacy but differ in their tolerability profile. 13 Optimal therapy consists in tailoring the choice of drug and its dosage to the characteristics of the individual patient. Regular and careful assessment of clinical response, monitoring of plasma drug levels where appropriate, and use of standardised instruments to identify adverse effects are important components of a rational approach to early identification of drug toxicity and implementation of appropriate corrective interventions.