The act contains several references to "derivatives" of compounds but the extent of this term is not fully clarified. Where unspecified it is thought to indicate derivatives which can be made from the specified compound in a single synthetic step, although such a definition would indicate that alkyllysergamide analogues would be uncontrolled. Where the derivatives are specified to be "structural derivatives" there is precedent that the statute applies whenever the structure could be converted to the specified derivatives in any number of synthetic steps. 
What is happening with the excess of amino acid carbon skeletons, not needed for energy production? Since the skeletons of both, glicogenic and ketogenic amino acids are metabolized to either acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA, they can be shifted off to fatty acid synthesis. Therefore, excessive intake of dietary protein can also contribute to body fat accumulation, although due to its lower caloric intake relative to that of carbohydrates and fats, as well as its relatively low catabolic usage, significantly less so than these other two macronutrients.