Psychological risks for parents who are carriers may include parental guilt. Newborn screening may identify infants who are carriers for a particular condition, such as sickle cell anemia. Giving the parents the infant’s carrier status has the potential advantage of letting the parents know that they may be at risk for having an affected child in another pregnancy. On the other hand, identifying infants as carriers may lead to misunderstanding and misinterpretation by the parents and others that could interfere with the parent-child relationship and result in potential social discrimination. As recommended by the Institute of Medicine and the American Academy of Pediatrics, newborns should not be screened specifically to identify their carrier status. Carrier status findings that are obtained incidentally through the newborn screening process should be given only to parents who have had previous counseling and who have given their consent ( American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001 ; Institute of Medicine, 1994 ).