Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile .  The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception .  In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone.  The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field.  The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.
Sixty children were recruited in a 2-stage, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. All patients complained of chronic nasal obstruction symptoms, and nasal endoscopy showed >75% choanal obstruction attributable to adenoid pads. In the first stage, 30 patients (group A) underwent mometasone treatment (50 microg per nostril per day) for 40 days, and 30 children (group B) received placebo. In the second stage, at the end of the first 40-day treatment period, patients in group A who showed subjective and objective clinical improvement were divided into 2 subgroups; group A1 (11 children) received topical intranasal steroid treatment on alternate days for the first 2 weeks per month, whereas group A2 (10 children) continued daily mometasone treatment for the first 2 weeks per month. After 3 months, all children were reassessed.