Steroid nucleus contains

Because steroids are lipophilic, they diffuse easily through the cell membranes, and therefore have a very large distribution volume. In their target tissues, steroids are concentrated by an uptake mechanism which relies on their binding to intracellular proteins (or " receptors ", see below). High concentration of steroids are also found in adipose tissue, although this is not a target for hormone action. In the human male, adipose tissue contains aromatase activity, and seems to be the main source of androgen-derived estrogens found in the circulation. But most of the peripheral metabolism occurs in the liver and to some extent in the kidneys, which are the major sites of hormone inactivation and elimination, or catabolism (see below).

Bile acids, in particular chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA), can regulate the expression of genes involved in their synthesis, thereby, creating a feed-back loop. The elucidation of this regulatory pathway came about as a consequence of the isolation of a class of receptors called the farnesoid X receptors, FXRs . The FXRs belong to the superfamily of nuclear receptors that includes the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family as well as the liver X receptors (LXRs) , retinoid X receptors (RXRs), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) .

Enteroendocrine cells have traditionally been recognized by their affinity for certain metal stains, hence the older terms chromaffin cells (having an affinity for chromium) and argentaffin cells or argyrophil cells (having an affinity for silver).  With sufficient resolution, these cells can sometimes be recognized in routine light microscopic preparations by their relatively pale cytoplasm with a broad base and a basal concentration of secretory vesicles (in contrast to the apical concentration of secretory vesicles for exocrine serous cells or mucous cells ).  Immunocytochemical methods are preferred for demonstrating and properly identifying the various types of enteroendocrine cells.

The spinal cord is covered with the same three membranes as the brain, called meninges. The inner membrane is the pia mater, which is intimately attached to the cord. The next membrane is the arachnoid mater. The outer membrane is the tough dura mater (Fig. 8). Between these membranes are spaces used in diagnostic and treatment procedures. The space between the pia and arachnoid mater is the wide subarachnoid space, which surrounds the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is most often accessed when performing a lumbar puncture to sample and test CSF or during a myelogram to inject contrast dye. The space between the dura mater and the bone is the epidural space. This space is most often accessed to deliver anesthetic numbing agents, commonly called an epidural, and to inject steroid medication (see Epidural Steroid Injections ).

Steroid nucleus contains

steroid nucleus contains

The spinal cord is covered with the same three membranes as the brain, called meninges. The inner membrane is the pia mater, which is intimately attached to the cord. The next membrane is the arachnoid mater. The outer membrane is the tough dura mater (Fig. 8). Between these membranes are spaces used in diagnostic and treatment procedures. The space between the pia and arachnoid mater is the wide subarachnoid space, which surrounds the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is most often accessed when performing a lumbar puncture to sample and test CSF or during a myelogram to inject contrast dye. The space between the dura mater and the bone is the epidural space. This space is most often accessed to deliver anesthetic numbing agents, commonly called an epidural, and to inject steroid medication (see Epidural Steroid Injections ).

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